Partial injections¶
Random partial injections and Stallings graphs
EXAMPLES:
sage: from slabbe import number_of_partial_injection
sage: number_of_partial_injection(10)
[1,
100,
4050,
86400,
1058400,
7620480,
31752000,
72576000,
81648000,
36288000,
3628800]
Random partial injections on [0, 1, ..., 6]
:
sage: from slabbe import random_partial_injection
sage: random_partial_injection(7) # random
[None, None, 1, 3, None, 0, None]
sage: random_partial_injection(7) # random
[5, 1, 0, 3, None, 4, None]
Random Stallings graph on [0, 1, ..., 19]
over 2 letters:
sage: from slabbe import random_cyclically_reduced_stallings_graph
sage: G,_,_ = random_cyclically_reduced_stallings_graph(20, 2)
sage: G
Looped multi-digraph on 20 vertices
Visualisation of the graph:
sage: from slabbe import TikzPicture
sage: tikz = TikzPicture.from_graph(G) # optional dot2tex
doctest:...: FutureWarning: This class/method/function is marked as experimental.
It, its functionality or its interface might change without a formal deprecation.
See http://trac.sagemath.org/20343 for details.
sage: path_to_file = tikz.pdf() # not tested
REFERENCES:
Bassino, Frédérique; Nicaud, Cyril; Weil, Pascal Random generation of finitely generated subgroups of a free group. Internat. J. Algebra Comput. 18 (2008), no. 2, 375–405.
- slabbe.partial_injection.number_of_partial_injection(n, algorithm='binomial')¶
Return the number of partial injections on an set of \(n\) elements defined on a subset of \(k\) elements for each \(k\) in \(0, 1, ..., n\).
INPUT:
n
– integeralgorithm
– string (default:'binomial'
),'binomial'
or'recursive'
. When n>50, the binomial coefficient approach is faster (linear time vs quadratic time).
OUTPUT:
list
Note
The recursive code of this function was originally written by Vincent Delecroix (Nov 30, 2017) the day after a discussion with Pascal Weil and me at LaBRI.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from slabbe import number_of_partial_injection sage: number_of_partial_injection(0) [1] sage: number_of_partial_injection(1) [1, 1] sage: number_of_partial_injection(2) [1, 4, 2] sage: number_of_partial_injection(3) [1, 9, 18, 6] sage: number_of_partial_injection(4) [1, 16, 72, 96, 24] sage: number_of_partial_injection(5) [1, 25, 200, 600, 600, 120] sage: number_of_partial_injection(6) [1, 36, 450, 2400, 5400, 4320, 720] sage: number_of_partial_injection(7) [1, 49, 882, 7350, 29400, 52920, 35280, 5040] sage: number_of_partial_injection(8) [1, 64, 1568, 18816, 117600, 376320, 564480, 322560, 40320]
TESTS:
sage: number_of_partial_injection(8, algorithm='recursive') [1, 64, 1568, 18816, 117600, 376320, 564480, 322560, 40320]
REFERENCE:
- slabbe.partial_injection.random_cyclically_reduced_stallings_graph(n, r=2, verbose=False, merge=False)¶
Return a uniformly chosen Stallings graph of n vertices over r letters.
INPUT:
n
– integer, size of graphr
– integer (default:2
), number of generators of the free groupverbose
– bool (default:False
)
Note
The probability that G is connected is 1 - 2^r / n^(r-1) + o(1/n^(r-1)) which is approx. 1
OUTPUT:
digraph, integer, integer
EXAMPLES:
sage: from slabbe import random_cyclically_reduced_stallings_graph sage: G,_,_ = random_cyclically_reduced_stallings_graph(20, 2) sage: G Looped multi-digraph on 20 vertices
sage: random_cyclically_reduced_stallings_graph(20, 5)[0] Looped multi-digraph on 20 vertices
With verbose output:
sage: G = random_cyclically_reduced_stallings_graph(20, 2, verbose=True) # random rejecting because graph is not connected rejecting because graph has a vertex of degree <=1 rejecting because graph has a vertex of degree <=1 rejecting because graph has a vertex of degree <=1
For displaying purposes, the following merges the multiedges automatically:
sage: G,_,_ = random_cyclically_reduced_stallings_graph(20, 2) sage: from slabbe import TikzPicture sage: tikz = TikzPicture.from_graph(G) # optional dot2tex sage: _ = tikz.pdf(view=False) # optional dot2tex
AUTHORS:
Sébastien Labbé and Pascal Weil, Dec 14, 2017, Sage Thursdays at LaBRI
- slabbe.partial_injection.random_partial_injection(n)¶
Return a uniformly chosen random partial injection on 0, 1, …, n-1.
INPUT:
n
– integer
OUTPUT:
list
EXAMPLES:
sage: from slabbe import random_partial_injection sage: random_partial_injection(10) # random [3, 5, 2, None, 1, None, 0, 8, 7, 6] sage: random_partial_injection(10) # random [1, 7, 4, 8, 3, 5, 9, None, 6, None] sage: random_partial_injection(10) # random [5, 6, 8, None, 7, 4, 0, 9, None, None]
TODO:
Adapt the code once this is merged: https://trac.sagemath.org/ticket/24416
AUTHORS:
Sébastien Labbé and Vincent Delecroix, Nov 30, 2017, Sage Thursdays at LaBRI
- slabbe.partial_injection.reject_statistics(n, r=2, sample_size=50, verbose=False)¶
Return return reject statistics when randomly choosing Stallings graph of n vertices over r letters.
INPUT:
n
– integer, size of graphr
– integer (default:2
), number of generators of the free groupn
– integer (default:50
), size of sampleverbose
– bool (default:False
)
OUTPUT:
histogram
EXAMPLES:
sage: from slabbe.partial_injection import reject_statistics sage: h = reject_statistics(50, verbose=True) # random not connected: Counter({0: 48, 1: 2}) has degree 1: Counter({0: 27, 1: 18, 2: 3, 3: 1, 4: 1}) sage: h.save('h_50.png', title='size of graph=50') # not tested
sage: h = reject_statistics(100, verbose=True) # random not connected: Counter({0: 48, 1: 2}) has degree 1: Counter({0: 41, 1: 8, 2: 1}) sage: h.save('h_100.png', title='size of graph=100') # not tested
sage: h = reject_statistics(500, verbose=True) # not tested (30s) not connected: Counter({2: 5, 4: 5, 5: 5, 0: 4, 1: 4, 8: 4, 3: 3, 16: 3, 6: 2, 11: 2, 15: 2, 18: 2, 23: 2, 7: 1, 10: 1, 44: 1, 13: 1, 49: 1, 19: 1, 21: 1}) has degree 1: Counter({0: 14, 1: 9, 3: 8, 2: 5, 4: 3, 5: 3, 6: 2, 9: 2, 7: 1, 8: 1, 13: 1, 15: 1}) sage: h.save('h_500.png', title='size of graph=500') # not tested
sage: h = reject_statistics(1000, verbose=True) # not tested (2min30s) not connected: Counter({8: 4, 26: 3, 3: 2, 7: 2, 9: 2, 10: 2, 14: 2, 15: 2, 17: 2, 18: 2, 27: 2, 40: 2, 59: 2, 0: 1, 1: 1, 4: 1, 5: 1, 11: 1, 13: 1, 19: 1, 20: 1, 21: 1, 22: 1, 28: 1, 44: 1, 48: 1, 51: 1, 52: 1, 53: 1, 58: 1, 63: 1, 66: 1, 75: 1, 121: 1}) has degree 1: Counter({2: 9, 0: 7, 1: 6, 4: 6, 3: 4, 5: 4, 7: 4, 8: 2, 6: 1, 9: 1, 11: 1, 12: 1, 13: 1, 15: 1, 17: 1, 26: 1}) sage: h.save('h_1000.png', title='size of graph=1000') # not tested